From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In the mid 19th-century, Hebron was still divided into four quarters, but the Christian quarter had disappeared. These offer a dish of lentils and olive oil to every poor person who arrives, and it is set before the rich, too, should they wish to partake. Attention economy is also relevant to the social sphere. Within it is a strong fortress
Supporters of attention markets for controlling spam claim that their solutions are superior to the alternatives for managing uses of information systems on which there is no consensus on the question of whether it is pollution or not. While the Jewish leaders accepted the partition plan, the Arab leadership the Arab Higher Committee in Palestine and the Arab League rejected it, opposing any partition. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hebron. Israel Benjamin David Matriarchs. Attention economy is also relevant to the social sphere. The sniper was caught in But soon after his departure, feuding broke out and in the Templars mounted a damaging raid on what was, by now, Muslim Hebron, in violation of agreements.
What information consumes is rather obvious: Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it" Simon , pp. He noted that many designers of information systems incorrectly represented their design problem as information scarcity rather than attention scarcity, and as a result they built systems that excelled at providing more and more information to people, when what was really needed were systems that excelled at filtering out unimportant or irrelevant information Simon , pp.
In recent years, Simon's characterization of the problem of information overload as an economic one has become more popular. Business strategists such as Thomas H. Davenport or Michael H. Some writers have even speculated that "attention transactions" will replace financial transactions as the focus of our economic system Goldhaber , Franck Information systems researchers have also adopted the idea, and are beginning to investigate mechanism designs which build on the idea of creating property rights in attention see Applications.
According to digital culture expert Kevin Kelly , the modern attention economy is increasingly one where the consumer product costs nothing to reproduce and the problem facing the supplier of the product lies in adding valuable intangibles that cannot be reproduced at any cost. He identifies these intangibles as: Attention economy is also relevant to the social sphere.
More specifically, long term attention can also be considered according to the attention that a person dedicates managing its interactions with others. Dedicating too much attention to these interactions can lead to "social interaction overload", i.
Digital media and the internet facilitate participation in this economy, by creating new channels for distributing attention. Ordinary people are now empowered to reach a wide audience by publishing their own content and commenting on the content of others.
Social attention can also be associated to collective attention, i. Attention is therefore a major and the first stage in the process of converting non-consumers. Since the cost to transmit advertising to consumers is now sufficiently low that more ads can be transmitted to a consumer e. Dolgin also states that a superfluidity of information may hinder the decision making of an individual who keeps searching and comparing products as long as it promises to provide more than it is using up.
One application treats various forms of information spam, advertising as a form of pollution or 'detrimental externality'. In economics an externality is a by-product of a production process that imposes burdens or supplies benefits , to parties other than the intended consumer of a commodity. This evolved from an article on the Federal Communications Commission Coase , in which Coase claimed that radio frequency interference is a negative externality that could be controlled by the creation of property rights.
Coase's approach to the management of externalities requires the careful specification of property rights and a set of rules for the initial allocation of the rights. Once this has been achieved, a market mechanism can theoretically manage the externality problem. The solution is not necessarily simple in its application to media content Hay Sending huge numbers of e-mail messages costs spammers very little, since the costs of e-mail messages are spread out over the internet service providers that distribute them and the recipients who must spend attention dealing with them.
Thus sending out as much spam as possible is a rational strategy: Spammers are demanding valuable attention from potential customers, but they are avoiding paying a fair price for this attention due to the current architecture of e-mail systems. One way this might be implemented is by charging senders a small fee per e-mail sent, often referred to as a " Sender Bond. A experiment with this kind of usage-based e-mail pricing found that it caused senders to spend more effort targeting their messages to recipients who would find them relevant, thus shifting the cost of deciding whether a given e-mail message is relevant from the recipient to the sender Kraut Closely related is the idea of selling "interrupt rights," or small fees for the right to demand one's attention Fahlman The cost of these rights could vary according to the interruptee: Costs could also vary for an individual depending on context, perhaps rising during the busy holiday season and falling during the dog days of summer.
Interruptees could decline to collect their fees from friends, family, and other welcome interrupters. Like the granters of interrupt rights, receivers could cash in their bonds to signal to the sender that a given communication was a waste of their time or elect not to cash them in to signal that more communication would be welcome.
Supporters of attention markets for controlling spam claim that their solutions are superior to the alternatives for managing uses of information systems on which there is no consensus on the question of whether it is pollution or not.
For example, the use of e-mail or text messages for rallying political support or by non-profit charitable organizations may be considered spam by some users but legitimate use by others. Laws against spam put the power to make this decision in the hands of government, while technological solutions like filtering technologies put it in the hands of private companies or technologically savvy users.
Such negotiation itself consumes attention and carries with it an attention cost, though. As search engines have become the primary means for finding and accessing information on the web, high rankings in the results for certain queries have become valuable commodities, due to the ability of search engines to focus searchers' attention. Like other information systems, web search is vulnerable to pollution: Since most major search engines now rely on some form of PageRank recursive counting of hyperlinks to a site to determine search result rankings, a gray market in the creation and trading of hyperlinks has emerged.
Participants in this market engage in a variety of practices known as link spamming , link farming , and reciprocal linking. Furthermore, the "nofollow" attribute does nothing to combat link farming or reciprocal linking. There is also a philosophical question of whether the links of site commentators as opposed to site owners should be treated as "second-class," leading to the claim that the attribute "heists commentators' earned attention" NoNoFollow.
Another issue, similar to the issue discussed above of whether or not to consider political e-mail campaigns as spam, is what to do about politically motivated link campaigns or Google bombs Tatum Hebron also became known throughout the Arab world for its glass production, abetted by Bedouin trade networks which brought up minerals from the Dead Sea, and the industry is mentioned in the books of 19th century Western travelers to Palestine.
For example, Ulrich Jasper Seetzen noted during his travels in Palestine in —09 that persons were employed in the glass industry in Hebron,  based on 26 kilns. Provisions are abundant, and there is a considerable number of shops. Apart from glassware, it was a major exporter of dibse , grape sugar,  from the famous Dabookeh grapestock characteristic of Hebron. A Peasant Arab revolt broke out in April when Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt announced he would recruit troops from the local Muslim population.
The town was invested and when its defences fell on 4 August it was sacked by Ibrahim Pasha's army. Most of the Muslim population managed to flee beforehand to the hills. Many Jews fled to Jerusalem, but during the general pillage of the town at least five were killed. Due to his extortionate demands for cash from the local population, most of the Jewish population fled to Jerusalem.
Though it was widely rumoured that he secretly protected Abd ar-Rahman,  the latter was deported together with other local leaders such as Muslih al-'Azza of Bayt Jibrin , but he managed to return to the area in By , the Jewish population consisted of 45—60 Sephardi families, some 40 born in the town, and a year-old Ashkenazi community of 50 families, mainly Polish and Russian,   the Lubavitch Hasidic movement having established a community in At the same time, Egypt began importing cheap European glass, the rerouting of the hajj from Damascus through Transjordan eliminated Hebron as a staging point, and the Suez canal dispensed with caravan trade.
The consequence was a steady decline in the local economy. At this time, the town was divided into four quarters: Kamil and his army marched towards Hebron in July , with representatives from the English, French and other Western consulates as witnesses.
After crushing all opposition, Kamil appointed Salama Amr, the brother and strong rival of Abd al Rachman, as nazir of the Hebron region. After this relative quiet reigned in the town for the next 4 years. Late in the 19th century the production of Hebron glass declined due to competition from imported European glass-ware, however, the products of Hebron continued to be sold, particularly among the poorer populace and travelling Jewish traders from the city.
A report from the French consul in suggests that glass-making remained an important source of income for Hebron, with four factories earning 60, francs yearly.
This was because the most fertile lands were situated within the city limits. Hebron was 'deeply Bedouin and Islamic',  and 'bleakly conservative' in its religious outlook,  with a strong tradition of hostility to Jews. The Jewish community was under French protection until The Jewish presence itself was divided between the traditional Sephardi community, Orthodox and anti-Zionist,  whose members spoke Arabic and adopted Arab dress, and the more recent influx of Ashkenazis. They prayed in different synagogues, sent their children to different schools, lived in different quarters and did not intermarry.
The British occupied Hebron on 8 December Before his appointment, he had been a staunch opponent of Haj Amin , supported the Muslim National Associations and had good contacts with the Zionists.
They later formed the core of the growing Arab nationalist movement in the early 20th century. During the Mandate period, delegates from Hebron constituted only 1 per cent of the political leadership. The Cave of the Patriarchs continued to remain officially closed to non-Muslims, and reports that entry to the site had been relaxed in were denied by the Supreme Muslim Council.
The sole exception was the 8th generation Hebronite Ya'akov ben Shalom Ezra, who processed dairy products in the city, blended in well with its social landscape and resided there under the protection of friends. In November , in anticipation of the UN partition vote , the Ezra family closed its shop and left the city. Both countries appointed military governors in the town, hoping to gain recognition from Hebron officials.
The Egyptians managed to persuade the pro-Jordanian mayor to support their rule, at least superficially, but local opinion turned against them when they imposed taxes.
Villagers surrounding Hebron resisted and skirmishes broke out in which some were killed. When the Armistice was signed, the city thus fell under Jordanian military control. The armistice agreement between Israel with Jordan intended to allow Israeli Jewish pilgrims to visit Hebron, but, as Jews of all nationalities were forbidden by Jordan into the country, this did not occur. Hebron notables, headed by mayor Muhamad 'Ali al-Ja'bari , voted in favour of becoming part of Jordan and to recognise Abdullah I of Jordan as their king.
The subsequent unilateral annexation benefited the Arabs of Hebron, who during the s, played a significant role in the economic development of Jordan. Although a significant number of people relocated to Jerusalem from Hebron during the Jordanian period,  Hebron itself saw a considerable increase in population with 35, settling in the town. Survivors and descendants of the prior community are mixed.
Some support the project of Jewish redevelopment, others commend living in peace with Hebronite Arabs, while a third group recommend a full pullout. Immediately after the war, mayor al-Ja'bari had unsuccessfully promoted the creation of an autonomous Palestinian entity in the West Bank, and by , he was advocating for a confederal arrangement with Jordan instead. Supporters of Jewish settlement within Hebron see their program as the reclamation of an important heritage dating back to Biblical times, which was dispersed or, it is argued, stolen by Arabs after the massacre of For years, members of the Ja'bari tribe were the mayors of Hebron.
Khader regularly meets with settlers and Israeli government officials and is a strong opponent of both the concept of Palestinian State and the Palestinian Authority itself.
Khader believes that Jews and Arabs must learn to coexist. Following the Oslo Agreement and subsequent Hebron Agreement , Palestinian cities were placed under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority , with the exception of Hebron,  which was split into two sectors: H1 is controlled by the Palestinian Authority and H2 controlled by Israel.
As of [update] , a total of 86 Jewish families lived in Hebron. Palestinians cannot approach areas where settlers live without special permits from the IDF. The Palestinian population in H2 has greatly declined due to the impact of Israeli security measures which include extended curfews, strict restrictions on movement,  the closure of Palestinian commercial activities near settler areas and settler harassment.
Palestinians are barred from using Al-Shuhada Street , a principal commercial thoroughfare. Post settlement was impelled by theological doctrines developed in the Mercaz HaRav Kook under both its founder Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook , and his son Rabbi Zvi Yehuda Kook , according to which the Land of Israel is holy, the people, endowed with a divine spark, are holy, and that the messianic Age of Redemption has arrived, requiring that the Land and People be united in occupying the land and fulfilling the commandments.
Hebron has a particular role in the unfolding 'cosmic drama': Redemption will occur when the feminine and masculine characteristics of God are united at the site. Settling Hebron is not only a right and duty, but is doing the world at large a favour, with the community's acts an example of the Jews of Hebron being "a light unto the nations" Or la-Goyim  and bringing about their redemption, even if this means breaching secular laws, expressed in religiously motivated violence towards Palestinians, who are widely viewed as "mendacious, vicious, self-centered, and impossible to trust".
Clashes with Palestinians in the settlement project have theological significance in the Jewish Hebron community: There is no kin connection between the new settlers and the traditional Old Families of Jewish Hebronites, who vigorously oppose the new settler presence in Hebron.
In the spring of , Rabbi Moshe Levinger , together with a group of Israelis posing as Swiss tourists, rented from its owner Faiz Qawasmeh  the main hotel in Hebron  and then refused to leave. The Labor government 's survival depended on the religious Zionism -associated National Religious Party and was, under pressure of this party, reluctant to evacuate the settlers.
Defence Minister Moshe Dayan ordered their evacuation but agreed to their relocation to the nearby military base on the eastern outskirts of Hebron which was to become the settlement Kiryat Arba.
Originally named Hesed l'Avraham clinic, Beit Hadassah was constructed in with donations of Jewish Baghdadi families and was the only modern facility in Hebron. In , it was renamed after Hadassah Women's Zionist Organization of America which took responsibility for the medical staff and provided free medical care to all. In , a group of settlers led by Miriam Levinger moved into the Dabouia, the former Hadassah Hospital in central Hebron, then under Arab administration. The take-over created severe conflict with Arab shopkeepers in the same area, who appealed twice to the Israeli Supreme Court, without success.
In , a Yeshiva was established there with a dozen teachers and up to 60 students. In , Israeli authorities took over a Palestinian education office Osama Ben Munqez School and the adjacent bus station. The school was turned into a settlement, and the bus station into a military base against an order of the Israeli Supreme Court.
In the immigrant Sephardic Rabbi Haim Yeshua Hamitzri Haim the Jewish Egyptian purchased 5 dunams on the outskirts of the city and in he signed a contract for a year lease on a further dunams of land, which included 4 plots in Tel Rumeida. The plots were administered by his descendant Haim Bajaio after Jews left Hebron. Settlers' claims to this land are based on these precedents, but are dismissed by the rabbi's heir.
In , settlers established a caravan outpost there called Ramat Yeshai. In , the Government recognized it as a settlement, and in the Defence Minister approved the building of the first housing units.
The Abraham Avinu Synagogue was the physical and spiritual center of its neighborhood and regarded as one of the most beautiful synagogues in Palestine.
It was the centre of Jewish worship in Hebron until it was burnt down in In under Jordanian rule, the remaining ruins were razed. The vegetable market was closed by the Israeli military and some of the neighbouring houses were occupied by settlers and soldiers. Settlers started to take over the closed Palestinian stores, despite explicit orders of the Israeli Supreme Court that the settlers should vacate these stores and the Palestinians should be allowed to return.
In , Israel Defense Forces called for the immediate removal of a new settlement, because it was seen as a provocation. In , it was reported that there were about 1, Jews in Hebron,  In , Hebron had an estimated 1, taxable Muslim households, in addition to 41 Jewish tax-payers. Taxpayers consisted here of male heads of households who owned even a very small shop or piece of land.
The total population was estimated at 10, Historically, the city consisted of four densely populated quarters: It is believed the basic urban structure of the city had been established by the Mamluk period, during which time the city also had Jewish, Christian and Kurdish quarters. In the mid 19th-century, Hebron was still divided into four quarters, but the Christian quarter had disappeared.
By the s, better security provided by the Ottoman authorities allowed the town to expand and a new commercial centre, Bab el-Zawiye , emerged. Some houses were built elsewhere on surrounding rural land. There was less development to the south-east, where housing units extended along the valley for about 1 mile 1.
In , with the assistance of the Israeli and Jordanian governments, the Hebron University , an Islamic university, was founded. In an attempt to enhance the view of the Ibrahami Mosque, Jordan demolished whole blocks of ancient houses opposite its entrance, which also resulted in improved access to the historic site. In , Israel recovered the site which had been converted into an animal pen, and by , a settler courtyard had been established there. Today, the area along the north-south axis to the east comprises the modern town of Hebron also called Upper Hebron, Khalil Foq.
It was established towards the end of the Ottoman period, its inhabitants being upper and middle class Hebronites who from there from the crowded old city, Balde al-Qadime also called Lower Hebron, Khalil Takht. The main commercial artery of the city is located here, situated along the Jerusalem Road, and includes modern multi-storey shopping malls.
Also in this area are villas and apartment complexes built on the krum , rural lands and vineyards, which used to function as recreation areas during the summer months until the early Jordanian period. The main municipal and governmental buildings are located in the centre of the city.
This area includes high-rise concrete and glass developments and also some distinct Ottoman era one-storey family houses, adorned with arched entrances, decorative motifs and ironwork. Hebron's domestic appliance and textile markets are located here along two parallel roads which lead to the entrance of the old city. The vegetable market is now located in the square of Bab el-Zawiye. From the s to the early s, a third of those who lived in the city worked in the shoe industry.
According to the shoe factory owner Tareq Abu Felat, the number reached least 35, people and there were more than 1, workshops around the city. They later put import taxes but the Abu Felat, who also is the Palestinian Federation of Leather Industries's chairman, said more is still needed.
Another factor contributing to the decline of the local industry is Israeli restrictions on Palestinian exports. Today, there are less than workshops in the shoe industry, who only run part-time, and they employ around 3,—4, people. While the Jewish leaders accepted the partition plan, the Arab leadership the Arab Higher Committee in Palestine and the Arab League rejected it, opposing any partition. In , in accordance with the Hebron Agreement , Israel withdrew from 80 per cent of Hebron which was handed over to the Palestinian Authority.
Palestinian police would assume responsibilities in Area H1 and Israel would retain control in Area H2. An international unarmed observer force—the Temporary International Presence in Hebron TIPH was subsequently established to help the normalization of the situation and to maintain a buffer between the Palestinian Arab population of the city and the Jewish population residing in their enclave in the old city.
Hebron was the one city excluded from the interim agreement of September to restore rule over all Palestinian West Bank cities to the Palestinian Authority.
The Cave of the Patriarchs massacre took place on February 25, when Baruch Goldstein , an Israeli physician and resident of Kiryat Arba , opened fire on Muslims at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque , killing 29, and wounding before the survivors overcame and killed him. Over the period of the First Intifada and Second Intifada , the Jewish community was subjected to attacks by Palestinian militants, especially during the periods of the intifadas; which saw 3 fatal stabbings and 9 fatal shootings in between the first and second Intifada 0.
The sniper was caught in In the s Hebron, became the center of the Kach movement, a designated terrorist organization,  whose first operations started there, and provided a model for similar behaviour in other settlements. In May , three students of the Hebron Polytechnic University carried out three separate suicide attacks. Israeli organization B'Tselem states that there have been "grave violations" of Palestinian human rights in Hebron because of the "presence of the settlers within the city.
A violent episode occurred on 2 May , when 6 yeshiva students died, on the way home from Sabbath prayer at the Tomb of the Patriarchs, in a grenade and firearm attack. The Shamgar Commission of Inquiry concluded that Israeli authorities had consistently failed to investigate or prosecute crimes committed by settlers against Palestinians. Hebron IDF commander Noam Tivon said that his foremost concern is to "ensure the security of the Jewish settlers" and that Israeli "soldiers have acted with the utmost restraint and have not initiated any shooting attacks or violence.
The most famous historic site in Hebron is the Cave of the Patriarchs. The Herodian era structure is said to enclose the tombs of the biblical Patriarchs and Matriarchs. The Oak of Sibta Oak of Abraham is an ancient tree which, in non-Jewish tradition,  is said to mark the place where Abraham pitched his tent. Hebron is one of the few cities to have preserved its Mamluk architecture. Many structures were built during the period, especially Sufi zawiyas.
The early Ottoman Abraham Avinu Synagogue in the city's historic Jewish quarter was built in and restored in Some Jewish traditions regarding Adam place him in Hebron after his expulsion from Eden. Another has Cain kill Abel there. A third has Adam and Eve buried in the cave of Machpelah. A Jewish-Christian tradition had it that Adam was formed from the red clay of the field of Damascus, near Hebron.
It is thus possibly the birthplace of John the Baptist. One Islamic tradition has it that the Prophet alighted in Hebron during his night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, and the mosque in the city is said to conserve one of his shoes.
According to the arrangement, al-Dari and his descendants were only permitted to tax the residents for their land and the waqf of the Ibrahimi Mosque was entrusted to them. Hebron is twinned with:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in West Bank. For other uses, see Hebron disambiguation. Location of Hebron within the Palestinian territories. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Hebron.
Vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Israeli—Palestinian conflict in Hebron. Retrieved 17 May The figure given here refers to the population of the city of Hebron itself. The root has magical overtones, and develops pejorative connotations in late Biblical usage. Archived from the original on October 27, Na'aman , p. The Origins of the Ancient Israelite States. See Joshua 20, 1—7. If you will do this, we shall show you where you can break in.
And it was so'. For an older translation see Le Strange , pp. Abraham' was the generic Crusader name for Hebron. This account, always in Moshe Gil, refers to two distinct events, the Arab conquest from Byzantium, and the Kurdish-Arab conquest from Crusaders.
Imsges: age demographics of dating sites
Their limbs had nowise been disturbed, and beside them were placed lamps of gold and of silver.
Although online dating sites are relatively common among a range of age cohorts, mobile dating apps are primarily popular with Americans in their mids through mids. Gil however suggests the tahrir records of the Jewish population may be understated.
Clashes with Palestinians in the settlement project have theological significance in the Jewish Hebron community: Hebron age demographics of dating sites, headed by mayor Muhamad 'Ali al-Ja'barivoted in favour of becoming part of Jordan and age demographics of dating sites recognise Abdullah I of Jordan as their king. Inthe Kharesmians destroyed the town, but left the sanctuary untouched. InIsrael Defense Forces called for the immediate removal of a new settlement, because well educated dating site was seen as a provocation. It became one of the principal centers of the Tribe of Judah and was classified as one of the six traditional Cities of Refuge. The tomb of Isaac lies forward, in the main building of the mosque, the tomb of Jacob to the rear; facing each prophet lies his wife.
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