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Much of the north of the county is an urban area contiguous to Greater London. The Surrey checks therefore appear to be one of the oldest of all county emblems. Donald Henson, The English Elite in The last elections were in November While a passion for working is a positive quality for any professional to have, workers who invest themselves fully into their careers risk the chance of suffering from workaholism.
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Even with the recovering economy, the accounting sector has remained a viable field. However, Surrey was not a major focus of any of these families' interests. An industry with an overwhelming wealth of data such as the medical sphere needs up-to-date technology for organization purposes and to Some of the miniatures on display, including in the centre a portrait of Elizabeth I by Nicholas Hilliard The county has numerous football teams. Richmond enjoys a temperate climate.
To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills , while further east is the plain of the Low Weald , rising in the extreme south-east to the edge of the hills of the High Weald. Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued reserves of mature woodland reflected in the official logo of Surrey County Council, a pair of interlocking oak leaves. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in the UK, one of the oldest in Europe.
Surrey also contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath , on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way , a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms.
The highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking. Surrey has a population of approximately 1. They are followed by Ewell with 39, people and Camberley with 30, The county council's headquarters have been outside the county's boundaries since 1 April , when Kingston and other areas were included within Greater London by the London Government Act Much of the north of the county is an urban area contiguous to Greater London. Before Roman times the area today known as Surrey was probably largely occupied by the Atrebates tribe, centred at Calleva Atrebatum Silchester , in the modern county of Hampshire , but eastern parts of it may have been held by the Cantiaci , based largely in Kent.
The Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from Roman texts describing the tribal relations between them and the powerful Catuvellauni on the north bank. The Atrebates were defeated, their capital captured and their lands made subject to Togodumnus , king of the Catuvellauni, ruling from Camulodunum Colchester.
Verica fled to Gaul and appealed for Roman aid. During the Roman era, the only important settlement within the historic area of Surrey was the London suburb of Southwark now part of Greater London , but there were small towns at Staines , Ewell , Dorking , Croydon and Kingston upon Thames. During the 5th and 6th centuries Surrey was conquered and settled by Saxons. The names of possible tribes inhabiting the area have been conjectured on the basis of place names. It has also been speculated that the entries for the Nox gaga and Oht gaga peoples in the Tribal Hidage may refer to two groups living in the vicinity of Surrey.
Together their lands were assessed at a total of 7, hides , equal to the assessment for Sussex or Essex. Surrey may have formed part of a larger Middle Saxon kingdom or confederacy, also including areas north of the Thames. The name Surrey is derived from Suthrige , meaning "southern region", and this may originate in its status as the southern portion of the Middle Saxon territory.
If it ever existed, the Middle Saxon kingdom had disappeared by the 7th century, and Surrey became a frontier area disputed between the kingdoms of Kent , Essex, Sussex, Wessex and Mercia , until its permanent absorption by Wessex in Despite this fluctuating situation it retained its identity as an enduring territorial unit.
During the 7th century Surrey became Christian and initially formed part of the East Saxon diocese of London , indicating that it was under East Saxon rule at that time, but was later transferred to the West Saxon diocese of Winchester. Its most important religious institution throughout the Anglo-Saxon period and beyond was Chertsey Abbey , founded in At this point Surrey was evidently under Kentish domination, as the abbey was founded under the patronage of King Ecgberht of Kent.
In the 9th century England was afflicted, along with the rest of north-western Europe, by the attacks of Scandinavian Vikings. Surrey's inland position shielded it from coastal raiding, so that it was not normally troubled except by the largest and most ambitious Scandinavian armies.
In an exceptionally large invasion force of Danes arrived at the mouth of the Thames in a fleet of about ships, which would have carried over 15, men. Withdrawing with their loot, the Danes were intercepted and defeated at Farnham by an army led by Alfred the Great 's son Edward, the future King Edward the Elder , and fled across the Thames towards Essex.
Surrey remained safe from attack for over a century thereafter, due to its location and to the growing power of the West Saxon, later English, kingdom. Cnut's death in was followed by a period of political uncertainty, as the succession was disputed between his sons. It is uncertain what his intentions were, but after landing with a small retinue in Sussex he was met by Godwin, Earl of Wessex , who escorted him in apparently friendly fashion to Guildford.
Having taken lodgings there, Alfred's men were attacked as they slept and killed, mutilated or enslaved by Godwin's followers, while the prince himself was blinded and imprisoned, dying shortly afterwards.
This must have contributed to the antipathy between Godwin and Alfred's brother Edward the Confessor , who came to the throne in , a hostility which helped bring about the Norman Conquest of England in Domesday Book records that the largest landowners in Surrey at the end of Edward's reign were Chertsey Abbey and Harold Godwinson , Earl of Wessex and later king, followed by the estates of King Edward himself.
Apart from the abbey, most of whose lands were within the shire, Surrey was the not the principal focus of any major landowner's holdings, a tendency which was to persist in later periods.
The Anglo-Saxon period saw the emergence of the shire's internal division into 14 hundreds , which continued until Victorian times. After the Battle of Hastings , the Norman army advanced through Kent into Surrey, where they defeated an English force which attacked them at Southwark and then burned that suburb. Rather than try to attack London across the river, the Normans continued west through Surrey, crossed the Thames at Wallingford in Berkshire and descended on London from the north-west.
As was the case across England, the native ruling class of Surrey was virtually eliminated by Norman seizure of land. Only one significant English landowner, the brother of the last English Abbot of Chertsey, remained by the time the Domesday survey was conducted in When the male line of the Warennes became extinct in the 14th century, the earldom was inherited by the Fitzalan Earls of Arundel.
The Fitzalan line of Earls of Surrey died out in , but after other short-lived revivals in the 15th century the title was conferred in on the Howard family , who still hold it. However, Surrey was not a major focus of any of these families' interests.
Guildford Castle , one of many fortresses originally established by the Normans to help them subdue the country, was rebuilt in stone and developed as a royal palace in the 12th century. John's efforts to reverse this concession reignited the war, and in the barons invited Prince Louis of France to take the throne. Having landed in Kent and been welcomed in London, he advanced across Surrey to attack John, then at Winchester , occupying Reigate and Guildford castles along the way.
Guildford Castle later became one of the favourite residences of King Henry III , who considerably expanded the palace there. During the baronial revolt against Henry, in the rebel army of Simon de Montfort passed southwards through Surrey on their way to the Battle of Lewes in Sussex.
Although the rebels were victorious, soon after the battle royal forces captured and destroyed Bletchingley Castle, whose owner Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester , was de Montfort's most powerful ally. By the 14th century, castles were of dwindling military importance, but remained a mark of social prestige, leading to the construction of castles at Starborough near Lingfield by Lord Cobham , and at Betchworth by John Fitzalan , whose father had recently inherited the Earldom of Surrey.
Though Reigate and Bletchingley remained modest settlements, the role of their castles as local centres for the two leading aristocratic interests in Surrey had enabled them to gain borough status by the early 13th century.
As a result, they gained representation in Parliament when it became established towards the end of that century, alongside the more substantial urban settlements of Guildford and Southwark. Surrey had little political or economic significance in the Middle Ages. It was not the main power-base of any important aristocratic family, nor the seat of a bishopric. The London suburb of Southwark was a major urban settlement, and the proximity of the capital boosted the wealth and population of the surrounding area, but urban development elsewhere was sapped by the overshadowing predominance of London and by the lack of direct access to the sea.
Surrey's agricultural wealth was limited by the infertility of most of its soils. Surrey's most significant source of prosperity in the later Middle Ages was the production of woollen cloth, which emerged during that period as England's main export industry. The county was an early centre of English textile manufacturing, benefiting from the presence of deposits of fuller's earth , the rare mineral composite important in the process of finishing cloth, around Reigate and Nutfield.
Though Surrey was not the scene of serious fighting in the various rebellions and civil wars of the period, armies from Kent heading for London via Southwark passed through what were then the extreme north-eastern fringes of Surrey during the Peasants' Revolt of and Cade's Rebellion in , and at various stages of the Wars of the Roses in , and The upheaval of also involved widespread local unrest in Surrey, as was the case all across south-eastern England.
Waverley Abbey near Farnham, founded in , was the first Cistercian monastery in England. Over the next quarter-century monks spread out from here to found new houses, creating a network of twelve monasteries descended from Waverley across southern and central England.
The 12th and early 13th centuries also saw the establishment of Augustinian priories at Merton , Newark , Tandridge , Southwark and Reigate.
These would all perish, along with the still important Benedictine abbey of Chertsey , in the 16th-century Dissolution of the Monasteries. Now fallen into disuse, some English counties had nicknames for those raised there such as a 'tyke' from Yorkshire , or a 'yellowbelly' from Lincolnshire.
In the case of Surrey, the term was a 'Surrey capon', from Surrey's role in the later Middle Ages as the county where chickens were fattened up for the London meat markets. Under the early Tudor kings, magnificent royal palaces were constructed in north-eastern Surrey, conveniently close to London. At Richmond an existing royal residence was rebuilt on a grand scale under King Henry VII , who also founded a Franciscan friary nearby in All these have since been demolished.
During the Cornish Rebellion of , the rebels heading for London briefly occupied Guildford and fought a skirmish with a government detachment on Guildown outside the town, before marching on to defeat at Blackheath in Kent. Surrey's cloth industry declined in the 16th century and collapsed in the 17th, harmed by falling standards and competition from more effective producers in other parts of England.
The iron industry in the Weald, whose rich deposits had been exploited since prehistoric times, expanded and spread from its base in Sussex into Kent and Surrey after The production of brass goods and wire in this area was relatively short-lived, but the manufacture of paper and gunpowder proved more enduring.
For a time in the midth century the Surrey mills were the main producers of gunpowder in England. George Abbot , the son of a Guildford clothworker, served as Archbishop of Canterbury in — In he founded Abbot's Hospital , an almshouse in Guildford, which is still operating. He also made unsuccessful efforts to revitalise the local cloth industry. One of his brothers, Robert , became Bishop of Salisbury , while another, Maurice , was a founding shareholder of the East India Company who became the company's Governor and later Lord Mayor of London.
Bankside in Southwark, then part of Surrey, was the principal entertainment district of early modern London. This was due to its convenient location outside the jurisdiction of the government of the City of London , since the social control exercised over this London suburb by the local authorities of Surrey was less effective and restrictive.
Bankside was the scene of the golden age of Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre , with the work of playwrights including William Shakespeare , Christopher Marlowe , Ben Jonson and John Webster performed in its playhouses. Surrey almost entirely escaped the direct impact of fighting during the main phase of the English Civil War in The local Parliamentarian gentry led by Sir Richard Onslow were able to secure the county without difficulty on the outbreak of war.
Farnham Castle was briefly occupied by the advancing Royalists in late , but was easily stormed by the Parliamentarians under Sir William Waller.
A new Royalist offensive in late saw skirmishing around Farnham between Waller's forces and Ralph Hopton 's Royalists, but these brief incursions into the western fringes of Surrey marked the limits of Royalist advances on the county. He raised his standard at Kingston and advanced south, but found little support. After confused manoeuvres between Reigate and Dorking as Parliamentary troops closed in, his force of men fled northwards and was overtaken and routed at Kingston. Surrey had a central role in the history of the radical political movements unleashed by the civil war.
In October the first manifesto of the movement that became known as the Levellers , The Case of the Armie Truly Stated , was drafted at Guildford by the elected representatives of army regiments and civilian radicals from London.
This document combined specific grievances with wider demands for constitutional change on the basis of popular sovereignty. It formed the template for the more systematic and radical Agreement of the People , drafted by the same men later that month. It also led to the Putney Debates shortly afterwards, in which its signatories met with Oliver Cromwell and other senior officers in the Surrey village of Putney , where the army had established its headquarters, to argue over the future political constitution of England.
In the Diggers , led by Gerrard Winstanley , established their communal settlement at St. George's Hill near Weybridge to implement egalitarian ideals of common ownership, but were eventually driven out by the local landowners through violence and litigation. A smaller Digger commune was then established near Cobham , but suffered the same fate in Prior to the Great Reform Act of , Surrey returned fourteen Members of Parliament , two representing the county and two each from the six boroughs of Bletchingley, Gatton , Guildford, Haslemere , Reigate and Southwark.
For two centuries before the Reform Act, the dominant political network in Surrey was that of the Onslows of Clandon Park , a gentry family established in the county from the early 17th century, who were raised to the peerage in Members of the family won at least one of Surrey's two county seats in all but three of the 30 general elections between and , while they took one or both of the seats for their local borough of Guildford in every election from to , usually representing the Whig Party after its emergence in the late s.
Successive heads of the family held the post of Lord Lieutenant of Surrey continuously from to Until the modern era Surrey, apart from its north-eastern corner, was sparsely populated in comparison with most parts of south-east England, and remained somewhat rustic despite its proximity to the capital. Communications began to improve, and the influence of London to increase, with the development of turnpike roads and a stagecoach system in the 18th century.
This phenomenon of commuting brought explosive growth to Surrey's population and wealth, and tied its economy and society inextricably to London. There was rapid expansion in existing towns like Guildford, Farnham, and most spectacularly Croydon , while new towns such as Woking and Redhill emerged beside the railway lines. This may have survived among the "Surrey Men" into the late 19th Century, but is now extinct. Meanwhile, London itself spread swiftly across north-eastern Surrey.
In it extended only to Vauxhall ; a century later the city's growth had reached as far as Putney and Streatham. This expansion was reflected in the creation of the County of London in , detaching the areas subsumed by the city from Surrey. The expansion of London continued in the 20th century, engulfing Croydon, Kingston and many smaller settlements. This led to a further contraction of Surrey in with the creation of Greater London , under the London Government Act ; however, Staines and Sunbury-on-Thames , previously in Middlesex, were transferred to Surrey, extending the county across the Thames.
In Brookwood Cemetery was established near Woking to serve the population of London, connected to the capital by its own railway service. It soon developed into the largest burial ground in the world. Woking was also the site of Britain's first crematorium , which opened in , and its first mosque , founded in In Godalming became the first town in the world with a public electricity supply.
The eastern part of Surrey was transferred from the Diocese of Winchester to that of Rochester in In this area was separated to form a new Diocese of Southwark. The rest of the county, together with part of eastern Hampshire, was separated from Winchester in to become the Diocese of Guildford , whose cathedral was consecrated in During the later 19th century Surrey became important in the development of architecture in Britain and the wider world.
Its traditional building forms made a significant contribution to the vernacular revival architecture associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement , and would exert a lasting influence.
The prominence of Surrey peaked in the s, when it was the focus for globally important developments in domestic architecture, in particular the early work of Edwin Lutyens , who grew up in the county and was greatly influenced by its traditional styles and materials. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the demise of Surrey's long-standing industries manufacturing paper and gunpowder. Most of the county's paper mills closed in the years after , and the last survivor shut in Gunpowder production fell victim to the First World War , which brought about a huge expansion of the British munitions industry, followed by sharp contraction and consolidation when the war ended, leading to the closure of the Surrey powder mills.
New industrial developments included the establishment of the vehicle manufacturers Dennis Brothers in Guildford in Beginning as a maker of bicycles and then of cars, the firm soon shifted into the production of commercial and utility vehicles, becoming internationally important as a manufacturer of fire engines and buses.
Though much reduced in size and despite multiple changes of ownership, this business continues to operate in Guildford. Kingston and nearby Ham became a centre of aircraft manufacturing, with the establishment in of the Sopwith Aviation Company and in of its successor H.
During the Second World War a section of the GHQ Stop Line , a system of pillboxes , gun emplacements, anti-tank obstacles and other fortifications, was constructed along the North Downs. This line, running from Somerset to Yorkshire , was intended as the principal fixed defence of London and the industrial core of England against the threat of invasion.
German invasion plans envisaged that the main thrust of their advance inland would cross the North Downs at the gap in the ridge formed by the Wey valley, thus colliding with the defence line around Guildford. Between the two world wars Croydon Airport , opened in , served as the main airport for London, but it was superseded after the Second World War by Heathrow , and closed in Gatwick Airport , where commercial flights began in , expanded greatly in the s and s, but the area occupied by the airport was transferred from Surrey to West Sussex in Few traces of the ancient British and Roman periods survive in Surrey.
There are a number of round barrows and bell barrows in various locations, mostly dating to the Bronze Age. The Surrey flag was registered as a traditional design, on September 11 th The flag is a banner of the arms.
Extensive research conducted by Philip Tibbetts, on behalf of the Association of British Counties ABC , proved however, that the county was also linked with a long standing emblem of similar, perhaps greater, antiquity to those of its neighbours. As with many county emblems, for example Buckinghamshire and Sussex , the Surrey checks originated with local aristocracy — in this case the de Warenne family whose name derives from ancestral estates in the valley of the Varenne in Normandy, south of Dieppe.
The chequered blue and yellow arms. The Surrey checks therefore appear to be one of the oldest of all county emblems. The checks also featured on de Warenne seals. The design was already flown as a flag in , highlighting its pedigree of use in this form. The De Warrenne shield is today present on a stained glass window at Westminster Abbey. Another notable usage of the de Warrenne checks to represent Surrey in this era was their appearance on this Suffragette banner.
The formal relationship of the checks to the county itself was cemented when Surrey County Council, which had come into being in , adopted a seal for use on official documentation which included the de Warenne checks at the apex. Smith in Croydon, built in the s.
The seal can also be found at County Hall, in Kingston-Upon-Thames, over the entrance to the building. This seal, incorporating the de Warenne checks, was subsequently used to represent Surrey in a general sense, as shown by its inclusion on this Surrey cricket postcard where it appears in the top right. The de Warenne checks also appeared as a flag on the home page of the Surrey Independent Football Association website.
It is noticeable that there has been an inconsistency in the display of the chequered pattern, the county archaeological society has the first check, in the top left position, yellow, the Reigate example however, reverses this and the number of checks on display is also reduced. The checks in the Surrey Council seal, as featured in the work, follow this pattern. It seems that no fixed pattern was ever formally established but that that the stained glass window version seems to have emerged in time as the standard pattern.
This is the basis for the design of the registered flag.
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The Richmond Oval officially opened on 12 December As a result, all the major islands are now surrounded by a system of dykes , which, although not as massive as those in the Netherlands or the levees of New Orleans , serve to protect the town from anticipated sources of flooding.
This led to a further contraction of Surrey in with the creation of Greater Londonunder the London Government Act ; however, Staines and Sunbury-on-Thamespreviously in Dating richmond surrey, were transferred to Suerey, extending the county across the Thames. The last elections were in November Ceremonial county of Surrey. With just one tiny mistake during the interview process,candidates can lose the chance of landing their dream position. The west front of Shugborough, Staffordshire, by Dating richmond surrey Dall, benefits of dating an african man the Chinese House left and several classical monuments.