Istanbul - Wikitravel


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Few taxi drivers speak languages other than Turkish, but do a fair job at deciphering mispronounced location names given by foreign riders. Outline Index Book Category Portal. Most of the skyscrapers of the city are located in the north of this district, around Levent and Maslak, with a totally different skyline from that of the old city.

Old Stamp IIa (1945-1949)

Their prevalence has increased significantly over the last decade, as the percentage of outpatients using private hospitals increased from 6 percent to 23 percent between and The New Urban Colonialism. Experimental Futures illustrated ed. Canada, second largest country in the world in area after Russia , occupying roughly the northern two-fifths This is a good visit for late afternoon, early evening, fleeing the city. Istanbul's first water supply systems date back to the city's early history, when aqueducts such as the Valens Aqueduct deposited the water in the city's numerous cisterns. In another variation, the scammer will talk to you in Turkish, and when you reply in your own language, they will be "surprised" you're not Turkish and offer to repay you for their accident with a beer.

The church, which shared its clergy with St. Irene, is said to have been built by Constantine in on the foundations of a pagan temple. It was enlarged by the emperor Constans and rebuilt after the fire of by the emperor Theodosius II. The church was burned again in the Nika Insurrection of and reconstructed by Justinian. The structure now standing is essentially the 6th-century edifice, although an earthquake tumbled the dome in , after which it was rebuilt to a smaller scale and the whole church reinforced from the outside.

It was restored again in the midth century. In it became a mosque with minarets, and a great chandelier was added. In it was made into a museum. The walls are still hung with Arabic calligraphic disks. The Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus was erected by Justinian between and as a thank-offering.

The two soldier-saints allegedly appeared to the emperor Anastasius I to intercede for Justinian, who had been condemned to death for conspiracy. The church is built as a domed octagon within a rectangle, with a columned and galleried Byzantine interior. It was restored in the 11th century and remodeled in the 14th; the building is now a museum renowned for its 14th-century mosaics, marbles, and frescoes. The Galata district is dominated by a massive tower that shares its name.

The tower was built by the Genoese traders in as a watchtower and a fortification for their walled enclave. When the Turks took possession of Constantinople, they covered the spines of the seven hills with domes and minarets, changing the character of the city. Like the Greeks, the Romans, and the Byzantines, the new rulers loved the city and spent much of their treasure and energy on its embellishment. The Ottoman dynasty , which lasted from to , continued to build new important structures almost until the end of their line.

The most imposing of their mosques were constructed from the midth to the midth century, and the greatest of the architects all bore the name of Sinan. Although the building was deeply influenced by the Persianate traditions of the Seljuq Turks, the style was blended with prevailing Hellenic and Byzantine traditions of the city.

Probably the most popularly known of all the mosques in Istanbul is the Blue Mosque , the mosque of Ahmed I Ottoman sultan from to , which has six minarets instead of the customary four. Large mosques were usually built with ancillary structures. There are more than fountains in Istanbul. Some simply flow from wall niches , but others, erected as public philanthropies, are pavilions.

It is square, with marble walls and bronze gratings, a mixture of the Turkish with the Western Rococo style. It was begun in by Mehmed II and served as the residence of the sultans until the beginning of the 19th century. The district is laid out on a grid plan. It still bustles with life and the pursuit of piastres. In later times the shops expanded their wares to include dried fruit, jewelry, linens, and other goods.

Istanbul, like other major cities in the region, attracts an increasing number of migrants from the countryside. The Christian and Jewish minorities continue to shrink both in percentage of the whole and in overall numbers. Kurds now constitute the largest ethnic minority in the city. Tourism is a growing source of income for Istanbul. Maritime services include many forms of transport, from harbour dinghies and small ferries to international liners. The municipality, which was organized by Constantine as 14 districts in imitation of Rome , is now divided into district municipalities, each of which has a mayor and a district council whose members are elected every five years.

District municipalities manage their own budgets and are responsible for local tasks that include handling waste removal and issuing construction permits. Water supply is a problem, particularly in the summer. Electric power supplies have been increased to help promote industrial expansion.

Most health services are concentrated in the municipality. There are more than 70 hospital s, about half of which are public. There is also a technical university on the Galata side of the Horn as well as an Academy of Fine Arts and schools of technology, commerce, and economics.

Foreign educational institutions include the American Robert College for boys founded in and the American College for girls founded in , both on the Bosporus. Half in Asia but enmeshed in the European economic system, Constantinople was unique: In the 4th century he was regarded as the great revolutionary, especially in religion. He did not make Christianity the religion of the empire, but he granted important concessions to the church and its bishops, and his conversion encouraged….

Monasteries sometimes had schools in which young novices were educated, but they did not teach lay pupils. The art and architecture of this city henceforth became known as Byzantine and extended throughout the entire Christian East. When Constantine began to build his new capital on the Bosporus, a mass of artisans was assembled for the purpose.

The majority of them were drawn from Rome, so that, at first, official art was early Christian in style and was, in fact, virtually Roman art: We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Page 1 of 2. Next page Cultural life. Learn More in these related articles: More About Istanbul 53 references found in Britannica articles arts architecture In architecture: Dome Christian In Western architecture: Early Christian In Western architecture: Architecture interior design In interior design: Byzantium mosaics In mosaic: Middle Byzantine mosaics poetry In Islamic arts: Ottoman Turkey pottery In pottery: Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. Thus, different sections of Istanbul can experience different weather conditions at the same time. IST , 20km west of the city centre.

From the airport, there are various options for getting into Istanbul: There is no night fare in Istanbul anymore - the price would be the same at midnight or midday. At the bus stop of your final destination, be wary of taxi drivers that come up to you or are overly friendly. Follow locals to a corner where most of the taxis are picking up customers. Then, there is the metro Just follow the signs , which will take you directly to the Otogar bus station or to numerous stops within Istanbul Aksaray in the city centre is the last stop, transfer stations for tram heading for deeper into old city is available at Zeytinburnu and Aksaray.

It is possible to be at your bus departing from Otogar within less than one hour after landing by taking the metro. Actual travel time on the metro from the Aksaray station to the Airport station was 35 minutes and cost TL 2. Obviously allow more time if you need to transfer on the way to the airport and keep in mind that you will have to pay for the transfer. When entering the metro station, you need to buy a jeton token for TRY4. Use 'select' to choose the number of jetons and then push 'ok'.

They don't accept credit card or foreign currency here. This will get you on the red metro line towards Aksaray. From this line, if you are going to Sultanahmet , you can transfer at Zeytinburnu and buy another jeton TRY4 - see the section on "Istanbulkart" if further travel within Istanbul's metro system will be undertaken. Note that the jeton token here is different than the first one.

The trip from the airport to Sultanahmet takes about 45min. This is much faster and cheaper than a taxi, which could take up to 2 hours if there is a lot of traffic. The boat runs from 7am to 9pm. No matter how long you travel, it costs 1 token per trip. You probably need a visa to enter Turkey, which can usually be obtained online. Check if this applies to you, and apply in advance, at evisa.

Do not rely upon any other website, even here at Wikitravel, as the rules may change suddenly as the security situation in Turkey evolves. Also some websites charge extra for no additional service.

Some travelers are not eligible for an evisa and must apply for a conventional visa via their local Turkish Embassy. Apply at the same time as you book your trip - your 90 or other day visa validity will start from your stated arrival day in Turkey. Print it out and keep it with you, as well as a soft copy on your phone. As well as checks when flying, it could be demanded at an internal police check. In theory you are permitted to arrive at Ataturk airport without a visa and use the visa office or machine to apply there.

Food and drink at the airport may cost up to five times more than in the city proper, like in other international airports. If you are travelling on budget and plan to spend some time at the airport, it may be wise to bring your own meals from town instead of buying them there. Be aware that last ferries are between 10 and 11pm, yet the E10 continues throughout the night. A pricier option is the Havatas bus connects this airport with Taksim in the city centre for TRY14 Aug and takes about an hour and a half closer to two or more in heavy traffic.

If you arrive in the middle of the night, you can move to the departure hall after passing customs and rest on very comfortable seats — you will even find coin-operated Japanese massage chairs. Various private operators offer internet bookable shared minibuses to central locations — a good choice when arriving late.

The meter will show c. TRY75, plus there is c. Note the security screening is before the check-in counters, so add some extra time to make the cut-off times 45 minutes for international, 30 for domestic. There are no mainline trains in central Istanbul. Trains to Europe via Bucharest or Sofia historically ran from Sirkeci station, but this line is disrupted by the Marmaray project and by other work in Bulgaria.

There are replacement buses from Sirkeci, at the usual departure time of 10 pm, to link with the westbound train, and returning from the incoming train around 8 am often very late. The project has been interminably delayed and as at no completion is in sight.

Sirkeci was also the terminus for international trains to Thessaloniki and regional trains to Edirne and these too are suspended indefinitely though a daily train runs between Halkali and Edirne.

So the station has no trains, but the ticket office remains open. Also just outside is the escalator down to Sirkeci Marmaray station, for the metro across the Bosporus.

You probably need a visa in advance to enter Turkey by train — see the note on visas in the section on Ataturk airport. Trains east to Ankara and beyond historically ran from Haydarpasa, Asian side of the Bosporus, but this closed in The simplest way there is by Marmaray line under the Bosporus then metro to Kartal, then bus or taxi the final 5 km to Pendik station.

Allow at least 90 minutes for all this, and note that the first metro of the morning will not get you to Pendik in time for the first Ankara train at 6. Also Pendik is convenient for Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen airport 10 km, taxi or bus so consider this route if you intend to fly in and immediately head east. Road transport for Pendik sets down, and picks up to return towards city centre, on the north side of the station. Walk through the subway to south side and turn right for the ticket office, platform access and other station facilities.

For timings and reservations strongly recommended see Turkish railways website at tcdd. For destinations in eastern Turkey, take the YHT to Ankara and change, but see that page for disruptions to those services, expected to last till For Adana, travel via Konya. The international trains to Iran, Syria and Iraq are suspended indefinitely, but the train to Georgia may resume in It is not known when the YHT line might be completed from Pendik into the centre of Istanbul, nor whether there will be a single central terminus or separate European and Asian stations as before.

But the Marmaray line was designed to take mainline passenger and freight trains as well as the metro. Most buses and coaches terminate at the colossal Esenler Otogar , about 10 km west of the city center, located on the European side. The station can be easily reached via the Otogar stop on the M1. Companies may also have courtesy minibuses or taxis which will allow you to easily access the center of the city.

The terminal is huge and each company has a separate office. The area can be a tourist trap with people wanting to help get you to the right office -- for a fee. It is easiest if you know who you want to travel with when you arrive.

Some bus companies selling online tickets from their individual webpages. Buses stop for rest and needs usually every 4 or 5 hours. Rest duration is 30 minutes. The port is ideally located close to Sultanahmet and Taksim. Cruise ships often dock close to downtown. Passengers not on tours will find taxis readily available at the port entrance, and modern streetcars a short walk away.

Traffic in Istanbul can be manic; expect a stressful drive because you will be cut off and honked at constantly. The city currently holds more than 1,, automobiles and there is a strong demand for building of new or alternate highways. If you've arrived in Istanbul by car, and you're not familiar with the streets, it's better to park your car in a safe place and take public transportation to get around.

The city, lying on two different continents and separated by the Bosphorus, is connected by two bridges. The bridge on the south, closer to the Marmara Sea, is called the "Bosphorus Bridge". Both are toll bridges, and you must pay a fee to cross. Since , the Bosphorus Bridge toll stations do not accept cash, and payment must be made using electronic cards, either manually KGS or automatically via a transponder mounted on the front of the car OGS.

On weekdays, drivers should be aware of potentially hour-long traffic jams on the highways leading to both bridges, particularly heading west in the mornings and east in the evenings, since most people live on the Anatolian side but work on the European side. There is a great shortage of parking in Istanbul, and existing lots are quite expensive.

You will see many cars parked on the sides of the road, in front of garage doors even. Drivers unfamiliar with the city should also be aware that street signs are rare. It is a common thing to pull over and ask for directions, something the natives and taxi drivers do quite often. Istanbul's public transit system can be difficult to figure out; maps are rare and you often have to transfer, and pay another fare, to get where you are going. However, if you put some effort into it, you can avoid taxis and not walk too much.

They range in price from lira paid in cash , depending on how far you're going. They run all night long, unlike most of the public transport lines.

Each time you use a tram, metro, bus, or boat on the public transport system, you will need to use a token expensive or a magnetic card cheaper, see below. Ticket fares across buses, trams and metros are at a flat rate i. Only cash in Turkish lira is accepted at ticket kiosks of public transport, no credit cards or foreign currency.

Also be aware that the Istanbul subway system does not offer transfer tickets and as such each new line requires a new fare, unless you use an an Istanbulkart or Akbil see below. Buying an Istanbulkart is a good idea if you are in Istanbul for more than a day or two, and intend to use public transport. This is a plastic card that looks like a credit card.

It can be used as a ticket on buses, trams, suburban trains, metro, some cross-Bosphorus ferries, and even some public toilets. The great part for groups of travellers is that you can buy only one and touch it as many times as there are passengers unlike London's Oyster card, there is no need to touch out. You can buy or refill them at designated booths located at any major bus, tram, to metro station, as well as some other places such as newspaper stands close to bus stops. An Istanbulkart provides a flat fare of 2.

Istanbulkart also allows discounts in transfers when used multiple times within a limited period, roughly an hour and a half since the last time you used it.

Note that there are different booths for buying the card and for charging it, and charging booths accept only 5, 10, and 20 lira banknotes. Once you have bought and loaded the card, your first journey costs 2. Then, any change within approximately 2 hours costs progressively cheaper: When several people are traveling using one card, the fare paid for the second, third etc.

Note that changing metro line or travel type, i. Therefore, this is extremely more economical than buying individual jetons at 4TL per journey. The Istanbulkard is relatively new, and is replacing the older Akbil metal touch-token which is being phased out but is still in wide use. It is now just about impossible to buy an Akbil.

However, there are still some places that do not yet accept the Istanbulkart, so if you have an Akbil token left over from previous trips to Istanbul, keep hold of it: Some Kiosks still have Akbil signs rather than Istanbulkart signs - but you can usually buy or top up your Istanbulkart at any kiosk where the Akbil sign is displayed. You can differentiate these two types by their colors.

The Akbil Transit Pass is valid universally while tickets that can be obtained in kiosks near bus stops for 1. Most bus lines operate between 6AM and around midnight, usually with a reduced volume of services after 10PM. After midnight, buses cost two tickets pp rather than the usual one. Buses and streetcars tend to be very crowded during rush hours, especially on Mondays and Fridays. That can also create opportunities for pickpockets. As a tourist, you are most likely to use the tram and the metro in the Sultanahmet and Taksim area since there are no bus lines operating in the Sultanahmet area anymore.

The distance travelled was metres. Starting in the 's, a modern and extensive and often confusing light rail system has been constructed in all parts of the city. The newest as of October addition is the Marmaray undersea tunnel, which crosses below the Bosphorus from the the Sultanahmet area to the Anatolian side. There are four Metro lines, the first of which has two branches.

Nowadays, most metro stations do not have a staffed ticket booth, so you will have to obtain your token from automatic token dispensers called Jetonmatic.

The line is 14km long, has 24 stations and serves many popular tourist sites e. An entire trip takes 42 minutes. However, both lines call at stations that are of most interest to travellers through the Old City.

During morning and evening rush hours every alternate tram runs as 47, while during the rest of the day, most run as The tram was put in service in on standard gauge track with modern cars, connecting Sirkeci with Topkapi. The daily transport capacity is , passengers. Between Taksim and Kabatas, there is a modern underground funicular to connect this tram line to the Taksim metro.

The tram is also connected to the southern metro line for the Otogar and Ataturk Airport at Aksaray station, though the metro and tram lines are a short walk from each other. There are also two other tram lines linking residential and industrial suburbs in the northwest with the city centre: However, these lines are of very little, if any, use to the average traveller. The process of replacing old buses with newer ones accessible for people using a wheelchair is ongoing.

Many buses on central lines have a low floor and a built-in ramp consult the driver to lean the bus down nearer to the ground, to open the ramp, and to assist into the bus, though any of these might unfortunately be impossible during peak hours in interval stops. Think of a sardine-packed bus unloading all of its passengers to lean down.

By September LCD screens showing the stop names while approaching to the stop, and voice announcement is made. Trams are accessible for people using a wheelchair from the station platforms if you can manage to get into the station in the first place. Some of the stations are located in the middle of very wide avenues and the only access to them is via underground passages tens of stairs or overpasses more stairs! Otherwise, platforms in tram stations are low and equipped with gentle ramps right from the street or sidewalk level.

Moda Tramvay and Nostaljik Tramvay run older cars which are not wheelchair-accessible. All stations and trains in the northern metro line are accessible for people using a wheelchair. All stations are announced by voice in the metro trains. In northern line it is also announced on a display, but not in the southern line.

Instead, you should look at the signs in the stations, which are big and common enough. Unique Istanbul liners large conventional ferry boats , sea-buses high speed catamarans , or mid-sized private ferries travel between the European and Asian sides of the city.

The crossing takes about 20 minutes and costs 1. Be aware that sometimes the ferry when arriving at a dock can bounce off the pier accidentally, even on calm days. This can cause people to fall over if they are standing up, so it is advisable to remain seated until the ferry has come to an absolute stop.

Istanbul liners [30] travel on the following routes:. Very useful are the fast ferryboats travelling at 55 kilometers running from several points, such as the Yenikapi - Yalova one, that allows you with a connecting bus in Yalova to be in Bursa centre in less than three hours. Prices are marginally higher and the gain in time is considerable, though the view is not as nice.

A new metro line extension crossing the Bosphorus in a tunnel is under construction. This will change the ferry provision and is perhaps a good reason to visit Istanbul before it is completed. Taxis are an easy and cheap way to get around. As of September , start off rate is 3. Tipping is generally unnecessary.

Occasionally, drivers will refuse to start the meter and try to negotiate a fixed price but most drivers will start taximeters at all times. You should avoid these cabs and simply take another one as you will almost certainly end paying too much. To be sure, before getting in, just ask "how much to go to? Tell them then to put the taximeter on. Drivers do normally work with the taximeter, so they will not be surprised at all when you ask them to put it on. The price at the end will be quite close to the one they tell you at the beginning.

There is now, as of October , just one fare unit, it means, there is no extra fare at night. Taxis that wait near a bus station are usually a tourist trap. They start the meter but charge you 20 TL at least. Emphasize to the driver that you will pay for the meter price before getting in.

Do not buy their quick-sell tricks. Always try to stop a taxi that is passing by on the road or find a legitimate taxi stop. Insist on going to the destination that you want because some drivers are payed by commission for each time they have someone go to a certain site. Beware riding a taxi other than the "yellow-colored" ones since the other-colored taxis are registered under different cities and have a different rating system.

Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed was just a 5 lira note. Occasionally taxi drivers may actually also rip notes you give them, and tell you it is no good, in order to make you hand them a 50 lira note. So, make sure the notes are not ripped, and is actually the right one before you hand them over. Also, if you are not familiar with the city the taxi driver may drive a detour in order to charge you more.

Traffic can be very bad, it can take an hour for a few km through the old city. You might be better off taking the metro out of the old city and then a taxi from there. They can carry up to 8 passengers. They are easy to recognize, because they also have the yellow painting as taxis and carry a Dolmus sign on its top.

They will only start driving when all eight places are filled, which is also where the name derives from. At a convenient spot. With its long history at the center of empires, Istanbul offers a wealth of historic and religious places to take in. An impressive section of mostly intact Theodosian walls , which mark the full length of western boundary of the peninsula, is right next to this particular church.

Further north is the Istiklal Avenue , Istanbul's prominent pedestrian street running from near Galata Tower to Taksim Square, the central square of whole city. Heading west rather than north from the old city brings you deeper into the banks of the Golden Horn estuary. North of Taksim Square is New Istanbul , main business district of the city. If venturing out to this direction, don't forget to check out Military Museum , where Ottoman military music concerts Mehter are held every afternoon. Most of the skyscrapers of the city are located in the north of this district, around Levent and Maslak, with a totally different skyline from that of the old city.

Long ignored for their bad connotation with the Tulip era of s, a period of ostentation and costly parties conducted by state elite amidst large gardens full of tulips, which was later accused of economic destruction and the eventual dissolution of Ottoman Empire, tulips have regained much of their former popularity in the last decade and now serve as some sort of symbol of both Istanbul and the whole Turkey.

A visit to a hamam Turkish bath is an essential part of any trip to Istanbul and is something you'll be sure to repeat before leaving. There is at least one historical hamam in each neighborhood of Istanbul. Take care in selecting a hamam, as they can vary greatly in cleanliness. Just being in the Hamam as a sauna , is enough for seeing and experiencing the place, but the scrubbing is a great experience.

The massage is not necessarily better than those found in western countries. Sultanahmet has many historical hamams. Some are very extravagant and cater mainly to tourists. The experience is true Turkish so don't expect any western standards. Then on to the Blue Mosque and the square with the obelisks on it At Meydani. Along its side is the very good Museum of Islam Art. Descend slightly and find the small Haghia Sophia with its nice garden it was under restoration, but you probably can get in.

Then uphill to the Sokollu Mehmet mosque complex, top notch tiles inside. It's on a raised platform near an old clothes market, you may have to ask directions. If you have some energy left, you might go on to the University complex, and by then you are very close to the Beyazit mosque. You will arrive before a fine mosque in front, another one four hundred meters off to the right, slightly inland behind a traffic roundabout, and a third, very small, at the sea front.

See the market stretching inland, walk about and don't forget to walk along the shore, maybe eating a fish meal in one of the bobbing boats along it. This is a good visit for late afternoon, early evening, fleeing the city. You will be joined by thousands of people going home from "town" but the way back will be on a near-empty ferry. The frequency of ferries will go down in the evening, so make sure there is a connection back.

Go to the railway station and find a Sirkeci-Halkali suburban train, and get out at from memory, Yedikule station. You will be quite close to Yedikule, a nice fortress, and will have fine views of the city walls. The ride is takes anywhere from twenty minutes to half an hour. This is not a "must", but it can be great fun. You will have missed the covered bazaar in all this.

That is because you will get there anyhow. If you go to Beyazit and the book market you are almost at two of its many entrances. Shops are of the international variety. These walls then became the critical point of defence of the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire and their Ottoman successors. They are still almost completely intact, marking the western border of the peninsula of Old City , with some sections suffering from somewhat unsightly restoration done in early s.

Some remoter sections may not be very safe and may require some caution. Download and print a scholarly historical and technical description of the walls before you visit Istanbul; this will certainly add to the pleasure.

This ferry terminal is separate from the Bosphorus terminals adjacent and east of the Galata Bridge. Walk west through the Galata bridge underpass, then through the bus station to a pedestrian laneway which leads to the small terminal building.

The fare is TRY1. Leave the ferry at Ayvansaray and cross the park to the wall on the other side of the main road. You have a choice of walking up the outer wall or the inner wall but access to the top of the battlements is usually on the inside naturally enough, so go up the small street across the road which then cuts back behind the wall and the towers.

Here you can climb up onto this section of un-restored wall on crumbling brick and stone and continue on some hundreds of yards climbing as necessary. This path comes to an obvious end and one can short cut back to the street. Sometimes there are dwellings and commercial enterprises hard up against the wall, sometimes a bus depot, a rubbish dump or often just the road. The different work done over the centuries was all of varying style and quality.

Quite surprisingly there are a number of small streets still using the narrow gates. This restoration from the 80s is in conflict with the original. Cross this and continue along the street at the back of the wall. Look for foot pads and breaks in the wall which allows access and a good look around.

Past here one see here quite clearly the double line of defence with outer moat. Walking now on the outside of the walls, various breaks in the outer wall allow access via broken stonework or later via modern sets of steps in disrepair. Between the walls is the disquieting evidence of the number of people sleeping rough in Istanbul. Note that entry to the gate towers has been closed at the gate, so entry is only from the walls. From here it is better to proceed on the outside of the walls because market gardens occupy the moat and the city side abuts buildings.

These couple of kms will give a further perspective of the ravages of time and earthquake on the walls. This is in excellent condition not least because the Ottomans upgraded it and then used it right up to the 19th century. There is an entry fee and it boasts a loo. The high walls and towers are all accessible, and one tower still has internal wooden floors. So you have now surveyed the protective land walls which kept Byzantium and the Eastern Roman Empire safe for all those years after the fall of Rome, breached only by the 4th Crusaders and the Ottomans.

What of their future? Given that recent restoration work is fairly suspect scholars may think it is better to leave them be. A safer, cheaper and more reliable option is to take the official Bosporus cruise from the state-run company Sehir Hatlari which offers a three hour cruise for TRY25 90 minutes each way with a break of several hours at Anadoli Kavagi or a shorter non-stop 2 hour cruise for TRY The fare is TRY The departure time is early there are three daily departures during the high season and is very popular, so arrive early and queue.

The open decks are hugely popular, so unless you have an outside seat expect people to be standing all around you constricting the view. The ferry waits some hours in Anadolu Kavagi so as you alight you are confronted by a numerous restaurants and their spruikers. Firstly take the very steep walk to the Yoros Kalesi, a strategic castle overlooking and controlling the entry to the Black Sea.

This important fortification with a commanding view has been fought over for many years and was last in use in the 19th century.

It has fallen into serious disrepair, but Christian engravings are still visible in the stonework. There are restaurants actually in the castle surrounds and naturally have spectacular views. There is plenty of time left to wander back to the village for lunch. It is late afternoon before arrival back at Eminonu, but a day well spent. A cheaper and faster Bosphorus cruise alternative is a TRY10 trip on a shorter cruise. Football soccer is the most popular sport in Turkey, and Turkish football fans are known for their passion.

Many teams from other parts of Europe consider the atmosphere to be very intimidating when they have to play away matches in Turkey. As the atmosphere is extremely hostile to the away teams, spectators should avoid wearing away team colours after the match, and avoid any signs of crowd trouble.

Many foreigners visiting or living in Istanbul decide to study Turkish formally in a language school.

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In , Istanbul had hospitals , of which were private. Istanbul Water and Sewerage Administration. The Armenian genocide 1st ed.

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The city's environmental master plan also notes that there are 17 palaces , 64 mosques , and 49 churches of historical significance in Istanbul.

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The price, as of Aprilis around 85 TRY per kg. Sultanate of Rum Mongol invasions of Anatolia Ilkhanate. Tourism is a growing source of income for Istanbul. Istanbul has numerous shopping centersdating site istanbul the historic to the modern. This is 50 Lira.