One Race, Every Medalist Ever
Image 2 of The ancient Olympics were as much a religious festival as an athletic event. Skating together is something that we love doing, and we love doing it together. Archived from the original on 8 August This page was last edited on 14 March , at
Cult and Competition Locations at Olympia. After these Olympic festivals had been established in several places, the great Olympic festival itself was sometimes designated in inscriptions by the addition of Pisa. Cuoco's past exes include addiction specialist Josh "Lazie" Resnik they called off their engagement in March and her Big Bang costar Johnny Galecki — she and Galecki, 36, kept their two-year romance completely under wraps. The Olympic Games evolved the most influential athletic and cultural stage in ancient Greece, and arguably in the ancient world. Some sectors of the economy may have benefited from the influx of tourists, and other sectors such as manufacturing lost revenue because of plant closings related to the government's efforts to improve air quality.
These races consisted of different events: The four-horse chariot race was the first equestrian event to feature in the Olympics, being introduced in BC. It consisted of two horses that were harnessed under a Yoke in the middle, and two outer horses that were attached with a rope.
In this race, Greeks didn't use saddles or stirrups , so they required good grip and balance. He was thrown from his chariot and was thus unable to finish the race. Nevertheless, he was declared the winner on the basis that he would have won if he had finished the race. Athletic festivals under the name of "Olympic games", named in imitation of the original festival at Olympia, were established over time in various places all over the Greek world. Some of these are only known to us by inscriptions and coins; but others, as the Olympic festival at Antioch , obtained great celebrity.
After these Olympic festivals had been established in several places, the great Olympic festival itself was sometimes designated in inscriptions by the addition of Pisa. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the modern event, see Olympic Games. List of ancient Olympic victors.
Ancient Greek Olympic festivals. Greek ministry of Education Research and Religious affairs. Archived from the original on 24 September Second Greek Delectus; or, new Analecta Minora With English notes, and a copious Greek and English lexicon, etc. Archived from the original on 15 November Etymologicum graciae linguae Gudianum et alia grammaticorum scripta e codicibus manuscriptis nunc primum edita Accedunt notae ad Aymologicion magnum ineditae E.
Archived from the original on 23 December Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 11 August Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 12 February Raschke 15 June Archaeology Of The Olympics: Univ of Wisconsin Press. Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 12 August The Origins of the Olympic Games.
Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 13 May Little remains of Eratosthenes' Chronographiae , but its academic influence is clearly demonstrated here in the Roman Antiquities by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Ancient Time and the Beginnings of History.
Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, , A Summary and Research Tool" by Kotynski, p. For the calculation of the date, see Kotynski footnote 6. There are no records of Olympic victors extant from earlier than the fifth century BC. The Olympic Games-through the ages. Young 15 April A Brief History of the Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 3 January Retrieved 1 April The True Story of the Ancient Games. Random House Digital, Inc. Archived from the original on 12 June Livius, Articles on Ancient History.
Archived from the original on 13 February The History of the Peloponnesian War. Translated by Richard Crawley. The Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 15 November — via Google Books.
It may have differed from site to site, but it was in the range of 7. Archived from the original on 18 September Archived from the original on 11 March Retrieved 15 November — via Internet Archive. The First Thousand Years". Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 4 April Archived from the original on 5 January Archived from the original on 23 October Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 4 August Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 26 January Phelps has now overtaken Leonidas of Rhodes as the most decorated Olympian of this, that, and every era.
Leonidas, as every self-respecting sports fan knows, did the sprint triple in the stadion, the diaulos, and the hoplitodromos, at four Olympics in a row between and BC.
Or 2, years ago. Who was Leonidas of Rhodes? Retrieved 14 August Retrieved 16 April Archived from the original on 15 May A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including 12 constructed specifically for use at the Games.
Some politicians and non-governmental organizations criticized the choice of China as Olympic host because of the country's human rights record,   and protests by critics of China's human rights record, with particular focus on Tibet , marred the international portion of the Olympic torch relay. There were 43 world records and Olympic records set at the Summer Olympics. An unprecedented 86 countries won at least one medal during the Games. Chinese athletes won the most gold medals with 48, and with medals in total became only the 7th different Olympic team to top an overall medal tally.
The United States won the most total medals with , and placed second in the gold medal tally followed by Russia. The games were deemed highly successful with the rising standard of competition among nations across the world. Beijing will later go on to host the Winter Olympics , becoming the first city ever to host both the Summer and Winter Games.
After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka received only six votes and was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds. Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection, especially from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums.
The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, and sympathy concerning its loss of the Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision. Carrard and others suggested that the selection might lead to improvements in human rights in China. In addition, a number of IOC delegates who had formerly been athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing.
China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games.
By May the construction of all 31 Beijing-based Olympic Games venues had begun. Investments were expected from corporations seeking ownership rights after the Olympics. The stadium hosted both the opening and closing ceremonies as well as the athletics competition.
The Guangdong Olympic Stadium was originally planned, constructed, and completed in to help host the Games, but a decision was made to construct a new stadium in Beijing. Several criteria were required of each design, including flexibility for post-Olympics use, a retractable roof , and low maintenance costs.
The selection of the design became official in April The Beijing Olympics caused traditional Hutong neighborhoods to be cleared for the construction of modern Olympic stadiums. In an effort to ensure success for the games, the government invested billions in building new infrastructure, although clearance to tiny, outdated neighborhoods in Beijing called hutongs resulted Petrun.
Feng Shuqin and her husband, Zheng Zhanlin have lived in their house for 50 years and the family has owned the property before the Communists took control in Michael Meyer, an American who lives in the hutongs reported that a total of , residents were relocated from their homes before the Olympics began Meyer. To prepare for Olympic visitors, Beijing's transportation infrastructure was expanded. Beijing's airport underwent a major renovation with the addition of the new Terminal 3, designed by architect Norman Foster.
Included in this expansion was a new link connecting to the city's airport. A fleet of thousands of buses, minibuses, and official cars transported spectators, athletes, and officials between venues. In an effort to improve air quality, the city placed restrictions on construction sites and gas stations, and limited the use of commercial and passenger vehicles in Beijing.
The Summer Olympics emblem was known as Dancing Beijing. The open arms of the calligraphic word symbolized the invitation from China to the world to share in its culture. IOC president Jacques Rogge was very happy with the emblem, saying, "Your new emblem immediately conveys the awesome beauty and power of China which are embodied in your heritage and your people. The mascots of Beijing were the five Fuwa , each representing both a colour of the Olympic rings and a symbol of Chinese culture.
In , the Beijing Organizing Committee released pictograms of 35 Olympic disciplines for some multi-discipline sports, such as cycling, a single pictogram was released. The Games were the first to be produced and broadcast entirely in high definition by the host broadcaster.
According to Nielsen Media Research, 4. CNN reported that, for the first time, "live online video rights in some markets for the Olympics have been separately negotiated, not part of the overall 'broadcast rights. The international European Broadcasting Union EBU provided live coverage and highlights of all arenas only for certain territories on their website, Eurovisionsports.
The theme song of the Olympic Games was "You and Me," which was composed by Chen Qigang , the musical director of the opening ceremony. The relay, with the theme "Journey of Harmony", was met with protests and demonstrations by pro-Tibet supporters throughout its journey.
The IOC subsequently barred future Olympics organizers from staging international torch relays. The relay began 24 March , in Olympia, Greece. From Beijing, the torch followed a route passing through every continent except Antarctica. The torch visited cities on the Silk Road , symbolizing ancient links between China and the rest of the world.
A total of 21, torchbearers were selected from around the world by various organizations and entities. The international portion of the relay was problematic. The month-long world tour encountered wide-scale anti-Chinese protests. After trouble in London involving attempts by protesters to put out the flame, the torch was extinguished in Paris the following day. The originally proposed route would have taken the torch through Taipei after leaving Vietnam and before heading for Hong Kong.
However, the government of Taiwan then led by the independence -leaning Democratic Progressive Party objected to this proposal, claiming that this route would make the portion of the relay in Taiwan appear to be part of the torch's domestic journey through China, rather than a leg on the international route.
In the following calendar for the Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held.
Each bullet in these boxes is an event final, the number of bullets per box representing the number of finals that were contested on that day. On the left the calendar lists each sport with events held during the Games, and at the right how many gold medals were won in that sport. There is a key at the top of the calendar to aid the reader. The opening ceremony officially began at 8: A rich assembly of ancient Chinese art and culture dominated the ceremony.
It opened with the beating of Fou drums for the countdown. Subsequently, a giant scroll was unveiled and became the show's centerpiece. The official song of the Olympics, titled " You and Me ", was performed by Britain's Sarah Brightman and China's Liu Huan , on a large spinning rendition of the globe. The opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and various international presses as "spectacular" and "spellbinding".
The program for the Beijing Games was quite similar to that of the Summer Olympics held in Athens. There were 28 sports and events at the Games.
Nine new events were held, including two from the new cycling discipline of BMX. Open water swimming events for men and women, over the distance of 10 kilometres 6. Team events men and women in table tennis replaced the doubles events. Equestrian and mixed badminton are the only sports in which men and women compete together, although three events in the Sailing allowed the opportunity for both males and female participants. However, only male participants took part in all three events.
The following were the events in 28 sports that were contested at the Games. The number of events contested in each sport is indicated in parentheses in sports with more than one discipline, as identified by the IOC,  these are also specified.
In addition to the official Olympic sports, the Beijing Organising Committee was given special dispensation by the IOC to run a wushu competition in parallel to the Games. The Wushu Tournament Beijing saw athletes from 43 countries participate, with medals awarded in 15 separate events; however, these were not to be added to the official medal tally since Wushu was not on the programme of the Olympic Games.
It began at 8: The Ceremony included handover of the Games from Beijing to London. This presentation included performances by guitarist Jimmy Page , and recording artist Leona Lewis. Footballer David Beckham was also featured during London's presentation.
Eighty-seven nations earned medals, 54 of which won gold medals, both setting new records for Olympic Games. Athletes from China won 48 gold medals, the most of any nation at these Olympics, becoming the first nation other than the United States and Russia Soviet Union, Unified Team to lead in medals since Germany at the Summer Olympics.
Athletes from Mongolia which previously held the record for most medals without a gold  and Panama  won their nation's first gold medals. An athlete from Serbia won its first medal under that name, having previously won medals as part of Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro. American swimmer Michael Phelps received a total of eight gold medals, more than any other Olympian in a single Olympic games, setting numerous world and Olympic records in the process.
These are the top ten nations that won medals in the Games. All but one of the recognized National Olympic Committees NOCs that existed as of [update] participated in the Summer Olympics, the exception being Brunei. While not a full member recognized by the IOC and thus not allowed to compete formally in the Olympics, the Macau Sports and Olympic Committee sent a delegation to participate in the Wushu Tournament Beijing , being the only unrecognized National Olympic Committee to have taken part in the Summer Olympics.
It also coordinated efforts with the Chinese Olympic Committee to organize the torch relay through Macau. The Marshall Islands and Tuvalu gained National Olympic Committee status in and respectively, and was the first games in which they were eligible to participate. After the declaration of independence in Kosovo, the IOC specified requirements that Kosovo needs to meet before being recognized by the IOC; most notably, it has to be recognized as independent by the United Nations.
More than sovereigns, heads of state and heads of government as well as Ministers of Sport attended the Beijing Olympic Games. The participation of Taiwan was briefly in doubt because of disagreements over the name of their team in the Chinese language and concerns about Taiwan marching in the Opening Ceremony next to the special administrative region of Hong Kong.
A compromise on the naming was reached, and Taiwan was referred to during the games as "Chinese Taipei," rather than "Taipei, China," as the mainland China government had proposed. When you look at that material you realize just how bizarre and alien some aspects of ancient sport were by modern standards, especially the religious element. Imagine cows being sacrificed between races in the middle of a modern Olympic stadium, for instance. Yet this material also points us to some surprising similarities between ancient and modern.
Many have argued that complex and bureaucratic sporting events were only developed in the 19th century. Greek athletics flourished in the Roman Empire and the Olympics in particular underwent a revival, especially through the sponsorship of successive emperors. The Olympics was the lead event in a calendar that involved probably more than independently organized annual festivals across the eastern Mediterranean. The organisational complexity and financial investment were enormous.
The media has been full of the usual stories about the race to get Olympic buildings finished in Rio. At least in the ancient world, sports festivals stayed in the same place so buildings could be reused. Yet preparation was far from straightforward. The following text, dating probably from around BC, describes preparations for the Pythian festival second only to the Olympics. It lists over 40 tasks, each with a large price tag and building contractor:.
Digging and levelling the covered practice track and the colonnade … digging and levelling the open-air practice track … provision of medimnoi [about 14, litres] of white earth for the covered practice track … fencing of the covered practice track ….
Maintenance of the covered and open-air practice tracks, the rooms for ball games, and the gymnasium … cleaning out of the Pythian stadium and renovation of the surrounding embankments … digging of the Pythian stadium, and digging and levelling of the jumping pits … construction of the auditorium.
There is evidence, too, of public-private partnerships, where rich individuals paid for works that would be available for profit-making outside festival time. The opening ceremony does have some ancient parallels, however.
As far as we can tell there was a procession from the city of Elis 30 or 40 miles away. It seems to have included all athletes and umpires, presumably with lots of fans tagging along.
But possibly a better precedent for the complexity of the modern preliminaries is the ancient tradition of sending out envoys theoroi across the Greek world.
Imsges: olympics dating each other
Archived from the original on 8 August For his part, Cavill is "a massiv e Big Bang Theory fan" and "has always wanted to date her," another insider says.
The Internet Classics Archive. Teams consist of five athletes, and 10 teams in each gender have qualified no more than one per country , with two-person mixed doubles teams
Ludington mi dating from the original on 17 June Men have to be in the top 60 in the world rankings to be considered; women have to be in. Archived from the original on 23 December University of Texas Press. World and Olympic records set olympics dating each other the Summer Olympics.
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