Journal of Comparative Pathology. The tail is hairless and thin-skinned, but highly vascularized, thus allowing for efficient counter-current heat exchange with the environment. Atlanta owes its origins to two Atlanta Terminal Station. Met de app heeft u toegang tot al onze edities en tot de kranten van 14 dagen terug. Thus man has indirectly caused the extinction of many species by accidentally introducing rats to new areas. Journal of Visualizing Experiments.
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Ryukyu long-tailed giant rat D. Sections of the City and Points of Interest. Gedownloade kranten blijven onbeperkt op uw mobiele telefoon of tablet staan, tenzij u ze wist. Please check your email and click on the link to activate your account. It has been suggested that this article be split into a new article titled Rat meat. Cox Media Group Consumer products giant Unilever to base its headquarters fully in the Netherlands, ending Included among these new industries were the Atlanta Sword Manufactory and the Spiller and Burr pistol factory.
Why are we asking this? Thank you for registering! Sign in to complete account merge. Thanks for verifying your email address. Former day care worker caught on camera injuring child, police say. Boy stabbed to death had invited suspected killer for pizza the night before.
Several children rescued from burning home. Parents upset their child played racist character in school play. Driver kills man in self-defense during road-rage incident, police say. Former day care worker caught on camera injuring child, police say Gwinnett County water main break repaired, roads reopened Police: Unchecked suburban growth and widespread automobile use, for example, contributed to difficult traffic problems and environmental issues, including increased pollution.
From to the Atlanta area lost some , acres of tree cover to residential and commercial development in the suburban metropolis. In the region endured a record sixty-nine days of smog alerts, and the average traffic commute of thirty-two minutes, already the longest in the nation, became even slower as well, as interstates and highways filled up with cars.
Such issues caused legislators to make changes to the state's environmental policy. The significant racial divide between city and suburb actually lessened somewhat toward the turn of the century as black suburbanization increased and a small back-to-the-city movement among white Atlantans gained momentum. Residential segregation continued, however, as did significant differences in income and job opportunities between inner city and suburban residents.
At the turn of the century, the poverty rate for the entire metropolitan area was only 9. Similarly, from to the central city's share of jobs in the region dropped from 40 to 30 percent, while northern suburbs' share rose from 40 to 52 percent. As this historical overview suggests, problems as well as opportunities associated with urban growth, race, and transportation have long been a part of Atlanta's history, and they are likely to influence the development and character of this city and region for years, and perhaps decades, to come.
The city of Atlanta itself is relatively small, with a land area of just over square miles. The city's population, which peaked in at ,, shrank by some 71, people as that decade progressed and by another 31, in the s. This trend of declining numbers now appears to have halted; in the total central-city population was , and in it rose to ,, making Atlanta the fortieth largest central city in the United States.
By the city's population had grown to approximately , With few natural barriers to contain or restrict the region's growth, the population of the Atlanta metropolitan area has continued to grow, from 2,, in to 5,, in During the s Atlanta outpaced all other metropolitan areas in the United States except Phoenix, Arizona, in its rate of population growth, and in it ranked as the ninth largest metropolitan area in the country.
The dispersed nature of Atlanta's population and growth has contributed to its having one of the smallest population densities of all major metropolitan regions in the United States. For much of its history Atlanta could be described as a biracial city, with whites and blacks constituting the vast majority of the resident population. In only 1. In the early s, however, the ethnic and racial landscape of the city and the metropolitan area began to change, as private relief agencies resettled refugees from Southeast Asia, Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, and Eastern Europe in the area and Atlanta's booming economy and job opportunities drew large numbers of legal and illegal immigrants from Mexico and other countries in Central and South America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and West Africa.
By Hispanics constituted 5. In the metropolitan area as a whole, a similar change has been occurring. Census data from also indicate that approximately Despite these changes, the two largest population groups in the Atlanta metropolitan area continue to be African Americans and whites, with African Americans constituting a majority presence within the city 54 percent in , down from That pattern continues to change as whites move into the city and black suburbanization continues to accelerate.
Between and , for example, more than 9, new white residents moved into the city. In addition, Atlantans, both black and white, according to recent surveys, are now more willing to live in integrated neighborhoods—a Brookings Institution study noted that the number of metropolitan Atlanta residents living in the most integrated neighborhoods rose by 2, percent during the s while the number in the most segregated areas dropped by 39 percent.
Residential segregation of the races is still very evident, however, and according to an Associated Press analysis of and black-white housing patterns, Atlanta remains the most segregated city in Georgia and the second most segregated city in the nation behind Chicago, Illinois.
Atlanta's dramatic population growth in the last few decades has been matched by equally impressive economic growth. The city is, by most measures, the business capital of the Southeast. Atlanta's economy is also tied closely to government agencies and activities, transportation, and the hospitality and convention industry.
As the capital of Georgia, the city is host to a wide assortment of state departments and agencies. The Atlanta metropolitan area also has the largest concentration of federal agencies outside of Washington, D. Taken as a whole, these governmental bodies constitute one of the metropolitan area's largest employers and a force that has exerted considerable influence in the last five decades on Atlanta's development and changing economy.
In fact, with the increasing movement of jobs, retail industries, and office buildings to the urban perimeter, the local, state, and federal government presence in downtown Atlanta has proven to be one of the area's stabilizing influences. Atlanta's ties to transportation include Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport one of the top two busiest airports in the world , three interstate highways that intersect in Atlanta, and a nexus of freight and passenger rail lines.
All of these transportation connections bring commerce, products, and people to the Atlanta area and provide employment, either directly or indirectly, to many of the region's citizens. Since the s the hospitality, tourism, and convention industry has been another key element of Atlanta's economy, spurring the construction of new hotels, convention spaces, and related industries.
From to , for example, the number of hotel rooms in the downtown area alone increased from 4, to 14,, and by Atlanta ranked third among cities trailing only Chicago and New York in terms of convention business. Facilitating this growth was the construction of such large support facilities as the Merchandise Mart which opened in and was expanded in , the Civic Center , the Apparel Mart , expanded in , and the Georgia World Congress Center opened in By more than 3 million people a year attended conventions in Atlanta and stayed in the metropolitan area's 88, hotel rooms.
Atlanta is home to a thriving arts community, with dozens of art museums, a professional ballet company, a puppetry arts center, and many High Museum of Art. The Center for Puppetry Arts was the first puppetry center in the United States, and features performances and a hands-on museum that includes the Jim Henson Collection.
The High Museum of Art is the premier art museum in the Southeast, with a collection of more than 11, works of art, including American, African, folk, decorative, modern and contemporary, and photography. Other important museums are the Michael C. Classical music has a long tradition in Atlanta. The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra performs more than concerts a year and has received international acclaim for its performances and recordings. The Atlanta Chamber Players are among the finest chamber music groups.
Atlanta claims a number of major-league sports teams: The PATH Foundation has created more than 60 miles with up to to be created eventually of multi-use greenway trails that wind through Atlanta's neighborhoods and metro areas.
Other recreational features in the city include Zoo Atlanta , the Chattahoochee Nature Center, Piedmont Park the city's largest public park and the site of the International and Cotton States Exposition , Centennial Olympic Park the largest urban park built in the United States in the last twenty-five years , and the Atlanta Botanical Garden. Atlanta is sometimes described as a "horizontal city. Population density is lower in the downtown area than in many large, older cities, such as Chicago, Boston, or New York.
Nonetheless, the tallest and most closely grouped buildings in Atlanta are found in Five Points the original and geographic center of the city and immediately north along Peachtree Street. The Georgia Aquarium, one of the largest aquariums in the world, opened in downtown Atlanta in November Funded by Home Depot cofounder Bernie Marcus , the facility contains 8 million gallons of water and houses more than , marine and freshwater animals.
The aquarium has dedicated 25 percent of its public space to educational programs, and scientists at the facility conduct research in such areas as marine veterinary medicine and global conservation. To the west of Five Points in downtown Atlanta is the Atlanta University Center , which is the largest consortium of black colleges and universities in the nation. To the north of downtown is midtown Atlanta, which features another grouping of tall office and hotel buildings, residential communities, restaurants, and bars.
Farther to the north along Peachtree Street is Buckhead, centered at the intersection of Peachtree and Roswell roads. Little Five Points is the center of the alternative arts and music scene and offers theaters, music venues, galleries, restaurants, and nightclubs. Atlanta Metropolitan State College is also located south of Atlanta's downtown.
It received state college status in The west side of Atlanta contains Booker T. Washington High School; Washington Park a black residential community built in the s and containing the first public park, tennis courts, and swimming pool for African Americans in Atlanta ; Hammonds House Galleries; and the Wren's Nest home of writer Joel Chandler Harris.
Atlanta during the Civil War. Fulton County Sewing Project. Atlanta Business Leaders, Spaghetti Junction in Atlanta. High Museum of Art. Old Atlanta City Hall. Frederick Allen, Atlanta Rising: The Invention of an International City Atlanta: An Illustrated History Athens, Ga.: Hill Street Press, University of Georgia Press, Crimmins and Dana F.
University of Georgia Press, , Garrett, Atlanta and Environs: A Chronicle of Its People and Events, 3 vols. Tourism and the Growth of Atlanta Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, A Shared Destiny Carlsbad, Calif.: James Michael Russell, Atlanta, Louisiana State University Press, Governing Atlanta, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, Partner Links Digital Library of Georgia: Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps.
The People of Atlanta , by C. Digital Library of Georgia: Atlanta Historic Newspapers Archive. Kiplyn Primus and Karen Adams [stories of Atlanta childhood in s]. Clinton Deveaux [story of Atlanta in s and s]. This Day in History: The Varsity Opens for Business. Atlanta Approved as Georgia's New Capital. Atlanta's Golf Courses Desegregated.
One on One with Steve Goss: Connecting with Atlanta's Living Landmarks. From Our Home Page. Philip Trammell Shutze Augustus Baldwin Longstreet Marquis de Lafayette in Georgia. Court of Appeals of Georgia. Julian and Julia Collier Harris ; Domestic rats differ from wild rats in many ways. They are calmer and less likely to bite; they can tolerate greater crowding; they breed earlier and produce more offspring; and their brains , livers , kidneys , adrenal glands , and hearts are smaller Barnett Brown rats are often used as model organisms for scientific research.
Since the publication of the rat genome sequence,  and other advances, such as the creation of a rat SNP chip , and the production of knockout rats , the laboratory rat has become a useful genetic tool, although not as popular as mice. When it comes to conducting tests related to intelligence, learning, and drug abuse , rats are a popular choice due to their high intelligence , ingenuity , aggressiveness , and adaptability.
Their psychology , in many ways, seems to be similar to humans. Entirely new breeds or "lines" of brown rats, such as the Wistar rat , have been bred for use in laboratories. Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been sequenced. Because of evident displays of their ability to learn,  rats were investigated early to see whether they exhibit general intelligence , as expressed by the definition of a g factor and observed in larger, more complex animals.
Robert Thorndike, for example, provided strong evidence for g in rats by the use of a variety of tests such as mazes, problem-solving tasks, and simple avoidance conditioning Performances tended to correlate across tasks, with stronger associations found between mazes and problem-solving than with simple avoidance tasks. However, it should be noted that there were other contemporary studies that found split or near zero-order correlation matrices for other populations of rats across cognitive batteries However, some more contemporary work has not supported the earlier affirmative view.
A controlled study found that rats are actively prosocial. Rat meat is a food that, while taboo   in some cultures, is a dietary staple in others. Taboos include fears of disease or religious prohibition, but in many places, the high number of rats has led to their incorporation into the local diets. In some cultures, rats are or have been limited as an acceptable form of food to a particular social or economic class.
In the Mishmi culture of India, rats are essential to the traditional diet, as Mishmi women may eat no meat except fish, pork, wild birds and rats. When feasting, the Polynesian people of Rapa Nui could eat rat meat, but the king was not allowed to, due to the islanders' belief in his "state of sacredness" called tapu. The rat bones found in all sites are fragmented, burned and covered in carbonized material, indicating the rats were eaten as food.
The greater occurrence of rat remains associated with commoner households may indicate the elites of precontact Hawaii did not consume them as a matter of status or taste. France has several regions where people consume rat. A recipe for grilled rats, Bordeaux-style, calls for the use of alcoholic rats who live in wine cellars. These rats are skinned and eviscerated, brushed with a thick sauce of olive oil and crushed shallots, and grilled over a fire of broken wine barrels.
Rat stew is consumed in American cuisine in the state of West Virginia. Rat meat is eaten in Vietnamese cuisine. Flesh of rat is eaten in Taiwan. Bandicoot rats are an important food source among some peoples in Southeast Asia, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated rat meat makes up half the locally produced meat consumed in Ghana , where cane rats are farmed and hunted for their meat.
African slaves in the American South were known to hunt wood rats among other animals to supplement their food rations,  and Aborigines along the coast in southern Queensland, Australia, regularly included rats in their diet. Along with eel and local beans known as garrafons , rata de marjal marsh rat is one of the main ingredients in traditional paella later replaced by rabbit, chicken and seafood.
In late , Reuters reported the price of rat meat had quadrupled in Cambodia, creating a hardship for the poor who could no longer afford it. Elsewhere in the world, rat meat is considered diseased and unclean, socially unacceptable, or there are strong religious proscriptions against it.
Rats are a common food item for snakes, both in the wild, and as pets. Adult rat snakes and ball pythons , for example, are fed a diet of mostly rats in captivity. Rats are readily available live or frozen to individual snake owners, as well as to pet shops and reptile zoos, from many suppliers.
In Britain, the government prohibited the feeding of any live mammal to another animal in The rule was put into place mainly because of the pressure of the RSPCA and people who said the feeding of live animals was cruel. Rats have been used as working animals. Tasks for working rats include the sniffing of gunpowder residue, demining , acting and animal-assisted therapy. Rats have a keen sense of smell and are easy to train. These characteristics have been employed, for example, by the Belgian non-governmental organization APOPO , which trains rats specifically African giant pouched rats to detect landmines and diagnose tuberculosis through smell.
Rats can serve as zoonotic vectors for certain pathogens and thus spread disease, such as bubonic plague , Lassa fever , leptospirosis , and Hantavirus infection. Rats have long been considered deadly pests. Once considered a modern myth, the rat flood in India has now been verified.
Indeed, every fifty years, armies of bamboo rats descend upon rural areas and devour everything in their path. Most urban areas battle rat infestations. Rats in New York City are famous for their size and prevalence. The urban legend that the rat population in Manhattan equals that of its human population a myth definitively refuted by Robert Sullivan in his book "Rats" speaks volumes about New Yorkers' awareness of the presence, and on occasion boldness and cleverness, of the rodents.
When introduced into locations where rats previously did not exist they can cause an enormous amount of environmental degradation. Rattus rattus , the black rat , is considered to be one of the world's worst invasive species.
The similar but less aggressive species Rattus norvegicus , the brown rat or wharf rat , has also been carried worldwide by ships in recent centuries. The ship or wharf rat has contributed to the extinction of many species of wildlife including birds, small mammals, reptiles, invertebrates, and plants, especially on islands.
True rats are omnivorous and capable of eating a wide range of plant and animal foods. True rats have a very high birth rate. When introduced to a new area, they quickly reproduce to take advantage of the new food supply. In particular, they prey on the eggs and young of forest birds, which on isolated islands often have no other predators and thus have no fear of predators.
Thus man has indirectly caused the extinction of many species by accidentally introducing rats to new areas. Rats are found in nearly all areas of Earth which are inhabited by human beings. The only rat-free continent is Antarctica , which is too cold for rat survival outdoors, and its lack of human habitation does not provide buildings to shelter them from the weather. However, rats have been introduced to many of the islands near Antarctica, and because of their destructive effect on native flora and fauna, efforts to eradicate them are ongoing.
In particular, Bird Island just off rat-infested South Georgia Island , where breeding seabirds could be badly affected if rats were introduced, is subject to special measures and regularly monitored for rat invasions. As part of island restoration some islands' rat populations have been eradicated to protect or restore the ecology. Breaksea Island in New Zealand was declared rat free in after an eradication campaign based on a successful trial on the smaller Hawea Island nearby.
In January an international "Rat Team" set sail from the Falkland Islands for the British Overseas Territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands on board a ship carrying three helicopters and tons of rat poison with the objective of "reclaiming the island for its seabirds". The South Georgia Heritage Trust, which organized the mission describes it as "five times larger than any other rodent eradication attempted worldwide".
The Canadian province of Alberta population 4. It has large numbers of native pack rats , also called bushy-tailed wood rats , but they are forest-dwelling vegetarians which are much less destructive than true rats. Alberta was settled relatively late in North American history and only became a province in Black rats cannot survive in its climate at all, and brown rats must live near people and in their structures to survive the winters.
There are numerous predators in Canada's vast natural areas which will eat non-native rats, so it took until for invading rats to make their way over land from Eastern Canada. Shotguns, bulldozers, high explosives, poison gas, and incendiaries were used to destroy rats. Numerous farm buildings were destroyed in the process. Initially, tons of arsenic trioxide were spread around thousands of farm yards to poison rats, but soon after the program commenced the rodenticide and medical drug warfarin was introduced, which is much safer for people and more effective at killing rats than arsenic.
Forceful government control measures, strong public support and enthusiastic citizen participation continue to keep rat infestations to a minimum. Alberta still employs an armed rat patrol to control rats along Alberta's borders. About ten single rats are found and killed per year, and occasionally a large localized infestation has to be dug out with heavy machinery, but the number of permanent rat infestations is zero.
The genus Rattus is a member of the giant subfamily Murinae. Several other murine genera are sometimes considered part of Rattus: The genus Rattus proper contains 64 extant species.
A subgeneric breakdown of the species has been proposed, but does not include all species. Ancient Romans did not generally differentiate between rats and mice, instead referring to the former as mus maximus big mouse and the latter as mus minimus little mouse.
On the Isle of Man , there is a taboo against the word " rat ". The rat sometimes referred to as a mouse is the first of the twelve animals of the Chinese zodiac.
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About ten single rats are found and killed per year, and occasionally a large localized infestation has to be dug out with heavy machinery, but the number of permanent rat infestations is zero. The ship or wharf rat has contributed to the extinction of many species of wildlife including birds, small mammals, reptiles, invertebrates, and plants, especially on islands. Along with eel and local beans known as garrafons , rata de marjal marsh rat is one of the main ingredients in traditional paella later replaced by rabbit, chicken and seafood.
Archived from the original on 22 January Bovendien kunt u de krant of artikelen, na downloaden, offline lezen. Rats are frequently blamed for damaging food supplies and other goods, or spreading disease.
Suburban growth and development continued and better hookup than craigslist fact accelerated, as the total number of residents in the metropolitan area grew from 2 million in to more than 4 million in Adding to this growing population were large numbers of African Americans, drawn to the city by opportunities for education and employment. Retrieved 8 August Most urban speed dating marietta ga battle rat infestations. The largest of these operations was the Bell Bomber later, Bell Aircraft plant, located in Marietta, which employed 28, workers including a sizeable number of women and African Americans at its peak in speed dating marietta ga Elsewhere, black Atlantans were largely confined to low-lying, flood-prone areas and other less desirable sections of the city.
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